Wood railway ties account for over 93% of the more than 680 million crossties in use on US railroad track (others materials include concrete and plastic/composite).The ties, which are manufactured from oaks and other hardwoods, are pressure treated with creosote, which, under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), is an approved registered pesticide for this purpose (see: ).The heavy steel arms—operated by steam cylinders—can throw a six-foot diameter, eighty-foot-long log. The first cut removes mostly wane—the round and bark-covered edge of the log. The movement of the carriage is controlled by the sawyer.
Repeat LPs can be performed for cases of hydrocephalus after intraventricular hemorrhage (which can resolve spontaneously).
Right up until he passed away, in May 2002, he continued to check in on operations, but his grandson, Todd Nystrom, now runs the mill, located about fifteen miles south of Corvallis, OR. The waggoner, a log-handling machine, grabs the logs before the binders are released, then lifts the logs clear of the truck. The sprocket-and-chain-operated table moves the logs individually to the log cradle (see photo, below) which holds each log in preparation for a short tumble down to the log deck and the log turner.
The log turner lifts, rolls, and shoves each log onto the carriage.
Regulations exist on the federal, state and local levels with regard to used wood railway crossties.
The rules are primarily in place due to the presence of creosote, although the shear volume of crossties also has an influence.