Murphy and other elements of chaotic cosmic calamity.
If the TCP/IP settings for a member computer specify the IP address of a public DNS server—perhaps at an ISP or DNS vendor or the company’s public-facing name server—the TCP/IP resolver won’t find Service Locator (SRV) records that advertise domain controller services, LDAP, Kerberos and Global Catalog.
Eg, if the old address is x.x.x.101, set the range to be x.x.x.120 to 130.
I know you're interested in determining some default behavior of the server, so this may not be helpful if it alters the very thing you want to determine. Because it has attracted low-quality or spam answers that had to be removed, posting an answer now requires 10 reputation on this site (the association bonus does not count).
I had to manually change the local IPv4 IP address for the network adapter to fix the issue.
Uninstalling KB3201845 should have the same effect but I have not tried that yet.
Update: Microsoft employee John Wink revealed that the issue was caused by a service crash that broke DHCP. The correct mitigation was/is a restart (not shutdown/reboot, but start - power - restart).
Friday's update mitigated by triggering such a restart, but today's update has the actual fix.
ddns-updates on; ddns-update-style standard; update-conflict-detection false; allow client-updates; ddns-domainname "local.domain.com"; ddns-rev-domainname ""; update-static-leases true; default-lease-time 7200; max-lease-time 7200; authoritative; [...] Whenever a client gets a new IP from the DHCP, the DNS registration works perfectly.
first in order to signal to the DHCP server that the IP address is available (it should remove the existing lease on the DHCP server).
So, to summarize, the whole process would be (in an Administrator cmd window): You could try configuring the DHCP server to give out addresses in a range that excludes the old address.
Yet, as you’ll see in this article, most of these issues don’t require extensive diagnostic work or sophisticated tools to isolate and resolve.
I liken it to the days when automobiles had carburetors; a mechanic could fix most engine performance problems by fiddling with the choke—spritz a little WD-40 into the throttle body, charge and retire in the suburbs after a few years. Check the TCP/IP settings, run a few utilities to verify the zone records, charge 0 (correcting for inflation) and retire to Arizona.